Archives: Lessons

Initial mutations: Lenition

This lesson is grammar-heavy. We use grammatical terms that may certainly not make sense to you. But go through it to familiarize yourself with the terms. Later you’ll be able to come back to this lesson and it will help explain some patterns you begin to hear in the Irish language. (For our method to …

Initial mutations: Lenition Read More »

Podcast: Vowels

We’ve recorded a podcast describing pronunciation of long vowels and short vowels. When you encountered a written word in Irish Gaelic, you can start to figure out how the letters should be pronounced by first looking whether or not the letter has an accent over it. We give you some examples to practice. Click here to …

Podcast: Vowels Read More »

Prepositional Pronouns

Introduction You’ve probably realized by now that Irish has some constructions that English doesn’t have (the reverse is true as well, of course). In this lesson you’re going to meet formally something you’ve already encountered here at Bitesize (though you may not have known its name): The Prepositional Pronoun: forainm réamhfhoclach.  In the sentences above, “duit,” …

Prepositional Pronouns Read More »

Video: Prepositional Pronouns

This video lesson is related to Prepositional Pronouns which is the next lesson. After this lesson, you will know what prepositional pronouns are and how to understand and use them. Learn about the emphatic form here: Lesson: Say It With Emphasis – Part 1  Lesson: Say It With Emphasis – Part 2.

Video: Days of the Week

This video lesson is related to Days of the week which is the next lesson. After this lesson, you will know the days of the week and how to use them correctly.

Days of the week

 In this lesson you are going to learn the names for the days of the week. As you’ll see, the names have a couple of different forms depending on the context. Before we begin… The Irish word for day is lá (its plural is laethanta, meaning days). You won’t hear lá mentioned in the rest of …

Days of the week Read More »

Nouns: The Vocative Case

In Irish, when you’re speaking directly to someone, whether you’re using his/her name, title, or a term of endearment, you must use a special form called “the vocative case” or, in Irish an tuiseal gairmeach. Before going into further detail, let’s give you an example. If you’re trying to get Seán’s attention, you won’t simply …

Nouns: The Vocative Case Read More »

Greeting an acquaintance

Tadhg spies an old school friend, Aogán, across the room and goes over to say hello to him. Because they know each other, they use a more casual form of greeting than Dia dhuit or Dia is Muire dhuit. We’ve covered some of this already in Lesson: How to start a conversation in Irish and Lesson: How …

Greeting an acquaintance Read More »

How to ask a question

In Lesson: Creating short sentences you learn how to form your own sentences. In this lesson you are going to develop a way to ask questions about something or someone. If you have an inquisitive mind, or want to spark off a conversation, this is a good skill to have. Asking: “Is he home?” The an bhfuil? phrase …

How to ask a question Read More »

How to answer negatively

In Lesson: How to ask a question, you learned how to answer the question An bhfuil sé sa bhaile? Is he home? with Tá sé sa bhaile. He is home.   Now you can build on that to be able to say He isn’t home. Example sentence of how to answer negatively Q: As it happens, no, …

How to answer negatively Read More »

How to answer a question

In Lesson: How to ask a question, you learned how to ask “Is he here?”, and you created your own sentece for “Is she here?”. In this lesson, you’ll learn how to answer that question. You’ll soon realize that you already have the building blocks to be able to answer such a question. With a …

How to answer a question Read More »

Booking a hotel room

Tadhg is planning a week in the Gaeltacht. He calls a óstán cúig réalt five star hotel he wants to stay in and an fáilteoir the receptionist answers. Step 1: Listen & Repeat: Slow Listen to the conversation below, repeating each line after the speaker. Do this as often as you like, until you are …

Booking a hotel room Read More »

Numbers to 20

Most simply, here are the numbers up to 20: Numbers change when listing them out When you’re counting, or when you’re listing numbers (as in giving someone your phone number), you have to put the little word a in front of the number. This causes a change to the numbers that begin with a vowel. When …

Numbers to 20 Read More »

Video: Where do you live?

This video lesson is related to Where do you live? which is the next lesson. After this lesson, you will be able to ask anyone where they live and understand their reply as well as tell them where you live.     To find out more about personal pronouns see Lesson: Possession – Part 1 and Possession: Multiple owners.


The word féilte is plural for féile and it literally means a festival. The word for a single vacation day is lá saoire, a public holiday is saoire phoiblí and church holiday is called lá saoire eaglaise. Names of specific festivals during the year While going through this list, try finding the next festival that will …

Holidays Read More »

Video: Holidays

This video lesson is related to Holidays which is the next lesson. After this lesson, you will know the major Irish holidays.

Where do you live?

To ask someone where they live, use the expression: A question beginning with cá tells you that the question is asking “Where?”. Literally, the expression above means “Where are you in your living?”. I live in… Assuming for now that you live in the city of Luimneach (Limerick) you can reply with: Pattern To tell someone …

Where do you live? Read More »

Where are you from?

Use the following sentence to ask someone where they are from: (You might also see Cá as duit which is just another variation, and also means Where are you from?) I am from… To build up your conversational fluency in Irish, it’s good to be prepared if someone asks you where you are from. Here’s how …

Where are you from? Read More »